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Full text of "The Morphology And Evolution Of The Apes And Man"

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and the ligaments do not all become simultaneously tight when the joint is fully extended.
Ankle-joint.—This joint has received considerable attention from Aeby $), Humphry (340), Keith (96) and Sonntag (399). In the Chimpanzee the capsule is attached as in Man, The deltoid ligament is small and runs from the medio-distal aspect of the tibia to the &ustentaculum tali and fcalus. The fibular calcanean ligament and tibial calcanean ligament are both well defined. The anterior and posterior talo-fibular ligaments are present, but the former is poor. An additional ligament runs from the anterior border of the distal end of the tibia under the talus to the distal tubercle on the calcaneus. There are four talo-calcanean ligaments— dorsal, posterior and two lateral—but the median ligament is weak; and the posterior one helps to form the interosseous ligament. A small ligament connects the plantar naviculo-calcanean ligament to the talus.
Calcanean ligaments,—In the Chimpanzee these are two in number—(1) a plantar calcaneo-navicular ligament running from the sustentaculum tali to the navicular bone ; (2) a calcaneo-cuboid ligament.
Cuboid Ligaments.—In the Chimpanzee the cuboid is attached by ligaments to the calcaneus, internal cuneiform and metatarsal bones. The long plantar ligament connects the cuboid to the bases of the second, third and fourth metatarsals, and a separate ligament connects it to the fifth metatarsal. Besides the ligament uniting it to the internal cuneiform bone there is an inter-osseous ligament between the cuboid and the cuneiforms.
Navicular Ligaments.—A dorsal ligament connects